History Of Subcontinent From 712 To 1947 In Urdu Pdf Free
History Of Subcontinent From 712 To 1947 In Urdu Pdf Free ::: https://shurll.com/2tzdI6
History of Subcontinent from 712 to 1947 in Urdu PDF Free: A Comprehensive Overview
The history of the subcontinent, which comprises present-day Pakistan, India, Bangladesh and other neighboring countries, is a rich and diverse one. It spans over a thousand years, from the advent of Islam in 712 CE to the partition of India and the creation of Pakistan in 1947 CE. In this article, we will provide a brief overview of the major events, personalities and developments that shaped the history of the subcontinent during this period. We will also provide a link to download a free PDF book in Urdu that covers this topic in more detail.
The Advent of Islam in the Subcontinent (712-1206 CE)
The first Muslim invasion of the subcontinent was led by Muhammad bin Qasim, a general of the Umayyad Caliphate, who conquered Sindh and parts of Punjab in 712 CE. He established Islamic rule and administration in the region, and treated the local population with tolerance and respect. He also married his daughter Zubaida to a local ruler, Dahir's son Jaisiah. Muhammad bin Qasim's conquest laid the foundation of Islamic presence and influence in the subcontinent for centuries to come.
After Muhammad bin Qasim's death, the Umayyad rule in Sindh declined and was replaced by various local dynasties, such as the Habbaris, the Sammas and the Soomras. These dynasties maintained cordial relations with the Abbasid Caliphate, which succeeded the Umayyads in 750 CE. They also patronized trade, culture and learning in their domains.
The next wave of Muslim invasions came from Central Asia, starting with Mahmud of Ghazni, who raided the subcontinent 17 times between 1000 and 1027 CE. He plundered many temples and cities, such as Somnath, Mathura and Kannauj, but did not establish a permanent rule. He was followed by Muhammad Ghori, who conquered Delhi in 1192 CE after defeating Prithviraj Chauhan at the second battle of Tarain. He appointed his slave Qutb-ud-din Aibak as his governor in India, who founded the Delhi Sultanate after Muhammad Ghori's assassination in 1206 CE.
The Delhi Sultanate (1206-1526 CE)
The Delhi Sultanate was the first Muslim empire that ruled over most of the subcontinent for over three centuries. It was divided into five dynasties: the Mamluks (1206-1290), the Khaljis (1290-1320), the Tughlaqs (1320-1414), the Sayyids (1414-1451) and the Lodis (1451-1526). The Delhi Sultanate expanded its territory through conquests and diplomacy, faced several challenges from Mongol invasions, Hindu rebellions and regional kingdoms, and contributed to the development of art, architecture, literature and culture in the subcontinent.
Some of the notable rulers of the Delhi Sultanate were Iltutmish (1211-1236), who consolidated the sultanate and introduced reforms; Balban (1266-1287), who strengthened the central authority and suppressed revolts; Alauddin Khalji (1296-1316), who extended
the sultanate to South India and implemented economic policies; Muhammad bin Tughlaq (1325-1351), who experimented with administrative and fiscal measures; Firuz Shah Tughlaq (1351-1388), who patronized public works and welfare schemes; Sikandar Lodi (1489-1517), who improved agriculture and trade; and Ibrahim Lodi (1517-1526), who lost his throne to Babur at the first battle of Panipat in 1526 CE.
The Mughal Empire (1526-1857 CE)
The Mughal Empire was founded by Babur, a descendant of Timur and Genghis Khan, who defeated Ibrahim Lodi at Panipat in 1526 CE. The Mughals established a 061ffe29dd